Recurrent strokes appear to contribute a disproportionate share to the overall national burden of stroke, principally due to costs associated with long-term disability (e.g. nursing home care and re-hospitalization). The secondary prevention of stroke includes strategies used to reduce the risk of stroke recurrence among patients who had previously presented with a stroke or TIA. This chapter provides information on risk factor management programs, management of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, the role of infection, lifestyle modification (diet, smoking, use of alcohol, physical activity) as well as treatment for atherosclerosis and cardiac abnormalities (e.g. atrial fibrillation) and reperfusion techniques.