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Cognitive Rehabilitation

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Risk for developing dementia may be up to 10 times greater among individuals with stroke than for those without. In this chapter, we examine issues around the definition, prevalence and natural history of post-stroke cognitive impairment as well as its clinical consequences. Risk factors for cognitive impairment are reviewed and the association between the treatment of hypertension and prevention of cognitive decline and dementia is explored. Identified treatment interventions include cognitive rehabilitation strategies (for the remediation of attention, memory, and executive functioning and problem-solving), electroacupuncture and TENS, music listening and pharmacotherapy. Reviews of the impact, risk factors, clinical consequences and treatment of both delirium and apraxia post-stroke are also provided. This chapter also reviews the treatment of perceptual disorders following stroke focussing primarily on unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Unilateral spatial neglect has been reported to have a negative impact on functional recovery, length of rehabilitation stay, and need for assistance after discharge.