Secondary Prevention of Stroke
Keywords:Risk factors, TIA, education, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cholesterol, diabetes, glycemic control, infection, diet, anti-oxidants, homocysteine, folic acid, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, carotid endarterectomy, carotid artery angioplasty, stenting.
Sub-sections8.1 and 8.2: Introduction and Risk Factor Management
8.4: Managing Diabetes
8.7: Lifestyle Modification
8.8: Atherosclerosis and Noncardiac Embolism
8.9: Cardiac Abnormalities
8.10: Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion Interventions
The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada has estimated that there are approximately 300,000 individuals living with the effects of stroke. While there is disagreement among studies assessing the relative cost associated with secondary compared to first-ever stroke, recurrent strokes appear to contribute a disproportionate share to the overall national burden of stroke, principally due to costs associated with long-term disability (e.g. nursing home care and re-hospitalization). The secondary prevention of stroke includes strategies used to reduce the risk of stroke recurrence among patients who had previously presented with a stroke or TIA. Management strategies, which should be specific to the underlying etiology, include risk factor modification, the use of antithrombolytic or anticoagulant drugs, surgery and endovascular treatments.
The present review provides information on risk factor management programs, management of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, the role of infection, lifestyle modification (diet, smoking, use of alcohol, physical activity) as well as treatment for atherosclerosis and cardiac abnormalities (e.g. atrial fibrillation) and reperfusion techniques. The review may be downloaded in a single document or in single sections corresponding to the topic areas listed above.
Paper Change Log
The version of this paper distributed on the 2008 CD ROM contains only the first 20 pages (introduction.) Please access either the Omnibus or desired sub-sections from this site.